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The DT1 Format
Title The DT1 Format
Description by Paul Siramy
Sent by

DT1 format
Paul SIRAMY, 30 December 2002



Before
anything else, I really want to thanks Clannad
for his original documentation of the DT1 format. Without
the doc he made in the first place, in the old Phrozen Keep's
Forums, I shouldn't have be able to decode further more the
DT1 format, as I surely have give up. He made a DT1 viewer,
and he could have kept his infos for himself, to not beeing
afraid of rivals. Thanks Clannad to have share your knowledge
with the world (as I'm doing right now), the current state
of the Moding scene is also a part of your work (personal
note : this is this doc that really throw me into the
Diablo 2 Modding scene, and this was the start of many tools
I have made since. If you hadn't made it, I shouldn't even
be here today).



Introduction


Ok,
so what are the DT1 files ? They are all the Diablo
2
Tiles that
are used for the floors and walls of the maps (a Tile beeing
the gfx element of a map). Or maybe the T stand in
fact for Textures ? Well, that's not important. There
are 256 DT1 files in the mpq, for a total of 157 MB (if you
don't have LOD, that's less of course). But note that some
are not used by the game in fact. Each DT1 is a collection
of bitmaps of the same theme, like Tristram, Catacombs,
Crypt, and so on. Their main path is from DataGlobalTiles.
In this directory there is another sub-division : 1 directory
for each act. And again in each Act directory, there's a directory
structure (different for each acts). For instance, the file
DataGlobalTilesAct1TristramTown.dt1 have all the
Tiles specific to Tristram.


One
thing to remember is that a DT1 is usually used by many maps.
Let's take the stone walls you see in the Rogue Encampment.
There are some such walls in this town. But you can see the
exact same walls in the Cold Plains, in Stony Field, in Tristram...
So if you want to edit a DT1, don't forget your changes will
alter more than 1 map, so be carefull.


Another
usefull things to know : Diablo 2 is a 3D-isometric game,
and therefore the Tiles of the DT1 are also in a 3D-isometric
shape. The walls are too in a 3D-isometric shape, even if
it's less obvious for some of them, like this fence, this
is why I have added a green rule under it for this example
:





Concepts


Since
we'll discuss the format of a DT1 in all its parts, you need
to know more.


  • The
    order of the Tiles in a DT1 is unsignificant. You
    don't have to worry about this part. But what identify
    a Tile in a DT1 is 3 indexes, and they are a source
    of troubles. This part will be explain later.

  • There
    are many kind of Tiles in the game : Floors, Animated
    Floors, Walls, Walls that go into the Abyss (these one
    are draw below the Floors), Roofs, Shadows, and
    even some Special Tiles that are used for Warping and
    such. All these different types of Tiles can be put into
    1 DT1 with no problems, there's no restrictions for that.


  • A
    Tile is divided into many more sub-tiles. Take the fence
    of the precedent example, the one with the green rule.
    I have draw a rule of 5 by 5 sub-tiles. It was in purpose,
    this is to show you the tiniest element of a Tile. EACH
    one of this sub-tile can be walkable or not, can let the
    light go thru or not, can let the player jump over it
    or not... The DT1 format not only have the gfx data of
    a Tile, it also have all of its sub-tiles infos, so don't
    expect to make a Tile from scratch with no problems (at
    least given the current Tools we have at our diposal today).
    In the other hand, that means you can change the way a
    Tile is working by just changing some flags of its sub-tiles...
    Always dream to walk on the water, or go thru a wall ?
    By editing a DT1 you can, this is just some flags to modify.


  • In
    addition of these sub-tiles data, a Tile have some other
    data, like the Sound index to use when the player walk
    / run over it, and maybe some infos to tell which are
    the environment effects the game can make over them (like
    river effect, rain...). It may have a sprite index to
    use for the minimap too. So just modify a gfx of a Tile
    is really not enough. If you change a wood floor by your
    own gfx of stone floor, and only the gfx, don't be surprised
    when you'll walk over this Tile : you'll still hear the
    wood sound. So again be carefull when you want to modify
    a Tile : think of all the datas of this Tile that you
    may have to edit as well.

  • Before we look at the file format itself, you have to know how the Tiles are handle in there : the Tiles are split into several smaller parts. And these smaller parts are not
    always of the same type. From a graphic point of view,
    there are 2 main different types, one for Floors, the
    other for Walls :

    • Floors are split into a maximum of 25 blocks, which are the
      25 sub-tiles :















        



    • Walls
      are split into a variable amount of blocks of 32 by
      32 pixels each :











       





    Each
    one of this 2 type is coded into its own format. Wall
    blocks are coded into a kind of simple RLE (Run Length
    Encoding) format, something like the PCX format : this
    is to handle the transparency of the walls. As for the
    Floors blocks... usually a Floor is not transparent, and
    when 2 successives pixels are of the same color that's
    an exception. So the Floor blocks are coded into a RAW
    format, no compression at all. But what happens if the
    Floor have some transparent area in it ? There are some
    such Floors, like the borders of a floor near the animated
    lava in act 4. In this case we'll have a Floor Tile wich
    have the 2 types of blocks in its data, and you'll see
    later that it isn't a problem.


    In
    summary, as far as I know, Wall Tiles are only using Wall
    blocks (32 by 32 RLE pixels), and Floor Tiles are using
    both type of blocks : Walls blocks and RAW blocks (these
    RAW Floor blocks are in a 3d-isometric shape too, as you
    can see).




  • Just
    to make a thing clear : Walls have 25 sub-tiles datas,
    just like the Floors, even if you don't see some floor
    gfx on them ! I remind you that these flags tells if a
    sub-tile can let the player walk over it or not, if it
    block the light or not, and such. So a wall still need
    theses infos for each one of its 25 sub-tiles : this is
    the only way to know where are the parts of the wall that
    are all solid (no walk, no jump, no light ...) and where
    are the others where the player can still walk (a door
    for instance). What about a barrel in the left part of
    a Tile ? It's an 'object' that can be placed on many floors,
    but it don't block all the area of the Tile, only 1 sub-tile.
    Don't mix up the 25 sub-tiles of Floors (and Walls), with
    the gfx block of a Wall (variable amount). For Floors
    it's almost the same, but not for the Walls.






File Format



Structure of a DT1




  • File
    Header

  • X Tile
    Headers

  • X Tile
    Data, each one structured like that :


    • Y
      Block Headers

    • Y
      Block Data






File Header
(
276 bytes )



The file start as folow :




























# Bytes


Description


4



Version (= 7)


4




Version (= 6)


260



All zero (reserved for future use ?)


4



Number of Tiles



4



Pointer in file to Tile Headers (= 276)


There
are some DT1 with the first 2 DWORD not equal to 7 and 6,
they are in a variation of the format I expose here. It seems
they are some preliminary works that have been left in the
mpq, but it's just a guess as I never be able to decode them
completly. In any case, if a DT1 don't start with the DWORD
7 and 6, obviously don't try to read the datas with the current
doc, as you'll get garbage.


After
this File Header follow a variable amount of Tile Headers.
Of course there is 1 Tile Header for each Tile there is in
the DT1 (4th data of the File Header). Each one of this header
is structured as follow :



Tile Header ( 96 bytes )























































































































# Bytes



Description



Comment



4



Direction



'General' orientation


2



Roof height




In pixels



1




Sound index




1



Animated ?



Flag



4



Height



in pixels, always power of 32,
always a negative number


4




Width



in pixels, always power of 32


4



Zeros



Unused



4



Orientation



The 3 indexes that identify a Tile


4



Main Index



4



Sub Index


4



Rarity / Frame index



Only Frame index in an Animated Floor Tile



1



Unknown 1



Seems to always be the same for
all the Tiles of the DT1


1




Unknown 2


1



Unknown 3


1



Unknown 4



25



Sub-tiles flags



Left to Right, and Bottom to Up


7



Zeros




Unused


4



Block Headers Pointer



Pointer in file to Block Headers for this Tile


4




Block Datas Length



Block Headers + Block Datas of this Tile


4



# of Blocks





12



Zeros



Unused


Direction
: As far as I'm concerned, it's useless. I prefer to check
the Orientation instead of
the Direction. Direction of a tile is a sort of a "main orientation",
while the Orientation data itself is very more accurate. The
values I have found : 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Maybe it has something
to do while playing the game in Direct 3D mode, using the
Perspective effect ? In this mode, the Tiles are slightly
oriented to the left or to the right, and it have nothing
to do with the fact they are drawing on the left half or the
right half of the screen.



Roof
height
: A Roof tile is almost the same thing as
a Floor tile, except that they have different Orientations,
and that a Roof have this data not equal to zero. This height
is used when the game need to draw the Roof : it tells in
how many pixels to the up the sprite must be draw above the
floor.


Sound
index

: This is a number that is used when the player is walking
/ running over a tile. There are differents sound : Wood,
Stone, Mud, Hearth... I don't know the relation between this
index and the wav files, as I have never check.


Animated
?

: This is a flag. I sometimes wonder if this is not a bitfield,
with more than 1 bit of this byte having a meaning. In any
case, when a Floor tile is a part of a Floor animation, the
lowest bit is set. In this case, the Rarity
/ Frame index
data of this tile is not used as
a Rarity, but as a Frame index. As far as I know there are
only Floor that are animated, but I have never try to make
an animated wall. Check the lava tiles in act 4 : for 1 animated
floor, there are 10 tiles of the same Orientation
/ Main Index / Sub-index
in the DT1, but with this
Frame index that go from 0 to 9. The speed of the animation
is hardcoded to be of 10 frames per sec, so each frame have
a duration of 1/10 of a second, like in this example :





Height
and Width : they are the
size of the "box" where the final Tile fit whitin. They are
always in power of 32 pixels (32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ...), and
as a very special case, the Height is ALWAYS a negative number,
whichever the type of the Tile, as if the game was starting
to draw the pixels from the bottom of the image, instead of
the top. Now remember that the size of this box have nothing
to do with the coordinates system within. The Width and Height
are just needed to create a bitmap in memory with enough space
(and usually you'll have more space that you really need).
The decoding process within this box will be discuss later.



About
the Width of a Tile... It can be less than 160, but never
more. If it's less, that's because the Tile have only the
left part of the "box" that have pixels, so it's not necessary
to have a bigger box if the gfx can fit into a smaller one.
But in the case there's only gfx in the right part, the
box will still be at its maximum size, since this Width
is always referenced from the full left side. 2 examples
will help :


















Smaller
box, because
only the left part is used

Normal box, because the

Width is from the left side






Beware
: some Tiles have both their Width and Height set to 0,
meaning theses Tiles are completly empty. You must check
these 2 datas for the case they are equal to zero, because
it's easy to have a bug in a program with that (trust me,
I have try for you). DataGlobalTilesAct1TownTrees.dt1
is such a DT1 with some empty Tiles.



Orientation,
Main Index and Sub-index
: As said before, they are the 3 indexes that identify a Tile.
There can be more than 1 tile with this combination in a DT1.
In fact there are some Tiles that are using the same
3 indexes of another Tile, either a Tile of the same DT1,
or the Tile of another. In this case, the game choose 1 Tile
randomly whithin the same, according to the Rarity data (this
very important point will be discuss later, as there are some
very special cases).



Note
that despite the Main-index and the Sub-Index datas in the
.dt1 appear to be DWORDS (32 bits), in fact in a .ds1 (a map
of the game) it can only use numbers of 6 bits for these 2
datas. This means that in all the .dt1 of the game you'll
only find values that range from 0 to 63, no more. It's also
very important to remember if you're planing to make your
own .dt1 later. So, you have 64 possible numbers for the Main-index,
and 64 possible numbers for the Sub-index, that means that
for a map you can "only" use 64 * 64 different tiles (4096)
per Orientation, but that
should be enough



The Orientation is the data
to check to know the type of the Tile :



  • Floors,
    either static or animated, have an orientation of 0


  • Special
    Tiles have 10 or 11 (special tiles are Warps, TP location,
    Map entries...)

  • Shadows
    have 13

  • "Walls"
    (better say "Objects") that have the precedent Shadows have
    an Orientation of 14

  • Roofs
    have 15

  • Lower
    walls have > 15


  • Normal
    walls have all the other values which are < 15, as descibed here :


















































    1.Left
    Wall
    2. Upper
    Wall
    3. Upper
    part of an Upper-Left corner
    4. Left
    part of an Upper-Left corner
    5. Upper-Right
    corner
    6. Lower-Left
    corner
    7. Lower-Right
    corner
    8. ???
    Seems to be Left Wall with Door object, but not
    always
    9. ???
    Seems to be Upper Wall with Door object, but not
    always


    Here's an exemple that show how the game usually use
    that Upper Wall Tiles. There is exeptions sometimes,
    but I think that this exemple is the generic layout.
    They're put together to make a 3 * 3 tiles room (but
    due to the design of the tiles in the game, we need
    4 * 4 tiles) :







Rarity
/ Frame Index
: As said before, this data is either
the Rarity of a Tile, or the Frame Index in the case of an
Animated Floor.


Unknown
1

to Unknown 4 : I still
don't know what theses datas ar for. It appear they have the
same values for all the Tiles of a DT1, which is strange :
why repeating the same values again & again for each Tiles
if they're all the same ? Maybe they are some index that tells
which sprite to used for the minimap, or maybe they tells
which are the environment effects the game can make with the
Tiles (like Rain), but I doubt they are any one of this 2
possibilities after all. They're really unknown datas for
now.



Sub-tiles
flags

: They are the flags of the 25 Sub-tiles of a Tile. Let's
say the North of the Tile is the upper-right border, the order
of the flags is from bottom to up and left to right, as follow
:



As
far as I know, here's the bits of such a Sub-tile flag, and
their meaning when I know them :



  • bit
    0 : block walk

  • bit
    1 : block light + block Line Of Sight (the possibility to
    see monsters)


  • bit
    2 : block jump (and teleport I believe)

  • bit
    3 : block Player's walk but not Mercenary's walk (weird)

  • bit
    4 : ?

  • bit
    5 : block light only (not LOS)

  • bit
    6 : ?

  • bit
    7 : ?



Block
Headers Pointer

: Pointer in file to the Block Headers of this Tile. There
is a variable amount of Blocks for a Tile. If the Width and
Height of the Tile are both equal to zero (no Blocks), this
pointer is unsignificant (in originals DT1 it point to the
Block Headers of the next valid Tile).


Block
Datas Length

: Length of the Block Headers + Block datas of this Tile (in
Bytes). If the Width and Height of the Tile are both equal
to zero (no Blocks), this length is set to zero.


#
of Blocks

: Number of Blocks which composed this Tile. This is of course
both the number of Block Headers and the number of Block Datas.
If the Width and Height of the Tile are both equal to zero,
this number is set to zero.




Coordinates systems


Before
we look at the process of making a Tile with its Blocks, you
must know the different coordinates system of each type of
Tile. There are 3 differents systems, one for the Floors and
Roofs, another one for the Upper Walls, the Shadows and the
Specials Tiles, and the last for the Lower Walls. Each one
of this system have the X axis working the same way, but NOT
the Y axis. In summary, each blocks have its own coordinates
to tells where to place it in the bitmap. So you must know
where are theses coordinates in the bitmap, because it's dependant
of the type of the Tile.



  • Floors
    and Roofs system

    :







  •  



    There's
    a unused area below the Floor. Despite the Height of
    a Floor says it's 128 pixels (-128 in the file, but
    +128 for us) you can safely assume the Floor is a box
    of 160 * 80 pixels. It's 79 to be very accurate, but
    80 being a muliple of 2, it's better to keep 80 than
    79 (come on, that's just 1 empty line).




  • Upper
    Walls, Shadows and Special Tiles system

    :



  • In
    this system, we know what the maximum coordinates are
    (zero), but not the minimum. As an exemple, the Worldstone
    have a Upper Wall Tile with an Height of 704 pixels. The
    floor grid which is draw is just for reference : Upper
    Walls usually don't have floor gfx.



    Strangely,
    ALL Upper Wall Tiles I have checked so far have a line
    of blank blocks at the top. So you can assume that if
    the Tile is not an empty Tile, the Height is 32 pixels
    too much, and therefore you can minus the Height by 32
    when creating the bitmap in memory.



  • Lower
    Walls system
    :




    And
    in this last system, we know what the minimum coordinates
    are ( - 96 ), but not the maximum. As an exemple, the
    Worldstone have a Lower Wall Tile with an Height of
    960 pixels. The floor grid which is draw is usually
    NOT just for reference : Lower Walls usually have a
    floor gfx in there, with their normal lower walls.



    Also,
    be carefull of 2 tricks :



    • In
      this system, we don't necessary have the Block's Height
      data beeing the negative value of the maximum coordinate.
      In fact, in this case that Height value is the minimum
      number of pixel (in power of 32) necessary to draw
      the Tile. For instance, imagine that we have a Lower
      Wall that only use 2 blocks, at coordinates (0, 64)
      and (0, 96). In this case the Block's Height data
      will be set to -64 (only 2 blocks needed).


    • The
      2nd trick is that, have you have just see, in this
      system there is no useless line of blocks, the Block's
      Height data is the exact amount of blocks needed
      to make the bitmap in memory, so don't minus that
      value by 32 like you did in the Upper Walls system,
      and be careful when you want to draw that blocks in
      your bitmap.






After
all the Tile Headers come the Tile Datas. Each one of this
Tile Data is structure like that :



  • a variable
    amount of Block Headers


  • the
    same amount of Block Datas


A
Block Header contain all the informations of a Block, while
the Block Data is the encoded pixels of this Block. Each one
of the Block Header is structured as follow :



Block Header ( 20 bytes )





























































# Bytes




Description



Comment


2



X position



Position in the bitmap



2



Y position



2



Zeros



Unused


1



Grid X




Position in the Sub-tile Grid


1



Grid Y


2



Format




Type of encoding


4



Length



Length in bytes of the encoding data


2



Zeros



Unused


4



File offset



Offset in file of the encoding data



X
position

and Y position : They
are the coordinates of the upper / left corner of the Block,
according to the Coordinates System of the Tile, as explain
before.


Grid
X

and Grid Y : They range
from 0 to 4 both, and they're really used ONLY for a Floor
Tile. I think they're some kind of relations between the Sub-tile
Flag and the Block position, but since they're ALL the same
for all the Floor Tiles I have checked, you can forget them
if you want (but keep that in mind).



Format
: If this value is equal to 1, then it's a 3D-isometric Floor
Block (RAW format, no transparency), else a regular one (RLE
fomat, 32 by 32 pixels).


Length
: Length in bytes of the encoding data of this Block.


File
offset

: Offset to add to the Block
Headers Pointer
of the Tile to have the position
in the file of the encoding data of this Block.




After all theses Block Headers come the Block Datas. Each
one of this encoding data must be decode in accordance of
the Format code of the Block.
Remember there is NO PALETTE in a DT1, since there is a global
palette for each act. Here are 2 (lame) samples of code in
C language that show how to decode the 2 possible types of
Blocks :



3D-isometric Block
:



1st line : draw a line of 4 pixels

2nd line : draw a line of 8 pixels
3rd line : draw a line of 12 pixels
and so on...


void draw_block_isometric (BITMAP * dst, int x0, int y0, const UBYTE * data, int length) 
{
UBYTE * ptr = data;
int x, y=0, n,
xjump[15] = {14, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14},
nbpix[15] = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 28, 24, 20, 16, 12, 8, 4};


// 3d-isometric subtile is 256 bytes, no more, no less
if (length != 256)
return;


// draw
while (length > 0)
{
x = xjump[y];
n = nbpix[y];
length -= n;
while (n)
{
putpixel(dst, x0+x, y0+y, * ptr);
ptr++;
x++;
n--;
}
y++;
}
}


RLE
Block
:


1st
byte is pixels to "jump", 2nd is number of "solid" pixels,
followed by the pixel color indexes.
when 1st and 2nd bytes are 0 and 0, next line.



void draw_block_normal (BITMAP * dst, int x0, int y0, const UBYTE * data, int length)
{
UBYTE * ptr = data, b1, b2;
int x=0, y=0;


// draw
while (length > 0)
{
b1 = * ptr;
b2 = * (ptr + 1);
ptr += 2;
length -= 2;
if (b1 || b2)
{
x += b1;
length -= b2;
while (b2)
{
putpixel(dst, x0+x, y0+y, * ptr);
ptr++;
x++;
b2--;
}
}
else
{
x = 0;
y++;
}
}
}



Rarity
of Tiles


A
harder topic now. I'll assume you have already used my DS1
Editor (a DS1 is a map of the game). If it is not the case,
you should leave this topic for now, and come back later.



So, what identify a Tile is 3 indexes : Orientation, Main-index
and Sub-index. And you should already know that when some
Tiles have the same 3 indexes, they are a part of the same
random set of Tiles. Now,
how the game handle this ?


For
instance, in Tristram, there are 4 Floor Tiles which are looking
as hearth half burnt, and they have the EXACT same Orientation
/ Main-index / Sub-index . This is why they are a part of
a random set. When the game see in a map that it must use
such a Tile it choose one randomly between the random set...
but not equally. Each Tile have its own chance to appear.
This certainly remind you of the "Rarity" you can see in some
.txt. This work almost the same way, but with some particularity.



Let's
take an easy exemple. Say that you have remake the town of
act1 with only 1 Floor Tile, and no Walls (except the 3 Special
ones of course). Now, let's make a custom DT1 : 2 Floor Tiles
in it, having the same Orientation / Main-index / Sub-index
as the one used in the map, and with their Rarity
each set to 1. So, we have 2 Floors, with the same Rarity,
from the same random set. If you test this map, you'll see
the 2 Floors, and they'll share equally the area.


Now,
set the first Floor Rarity to 1 and the second to 10. After
remaking the DT1 and testing with the same map... the 1st
Floor don't appear often. It appears 1/11 of the time : the
Rarity of 1 Tile is for the distribution. If you set the first
Floor Rarity to 2 and the second to 4, you'll have the first
Tile appear 2 / 6 of the times, and the second 4 / 6 of the
times.


Now,
some special cases. What happens if in a Tile Random Set some
tiles have a Rarity of 0 ? All to 0 ? Same random set in 2
different DT1 ? Some 0 in 1 DT1 and the other ?


Let's
say we have 2 DT1, whith Tiles of the same random set in both.
First, the game compute the sum of the Rarity of all the
Tiles in all the DT1 of the map for this random set
. If
this sum is equal to zero, then you'll only see 1 Tile in
the map, always the same : the Tile which is the last of this
random set in the 1st DT1. It means that if all the Rarity
are zero, you'll never see a Tile of another DT1 than in the
1st DT1, and for the 1st DT1 you'll only see the last Tile
it found.

If
the sum is NOT zero, then you'll see random Tiles of both
DT1. But the game only use the Tiles which DO have a Rarity
in this case. There's no priority of DT1 here, each Tile will
appear according to its Rarity, as long as it is not zero
(it's just normal to not take a Tile if it have 0 luck to
appear after all).


Maybe
an exemple will help to fix how it works :




This image show all the Tiles of 1 random set, used by facade.ds1,
the Monastery. All these Floors are part of the same random
set because they all have the same Orientation / main index
/ Sub-index. But their Rarity varies. Total of Rarity for
this set = ( 8 x 1
) + ( 1 x 0
) + ( 3 x 2
) + ( 1 x 3
) + ( 2 x 10
) = 37. So for each 37 Tiles that will be draw, you'll
see 8 Tiles that have many blood over them, 6 Tiles that have
less blood, 3 Tiles that have very very few blood over them,
and 20 Tiles that have no blood at all. You'll never see the
Tile in the bottom-left corner of the image, because it have
a Rarity of 0. It surely won't be this exact amount of Tiles,
because of some randomness, but you've got the idea.



Last
words


This
doc is not yet complete, as there are still some unknown datas
in the file format, but it should already be of a great help.
If you find more informations, or if you have suggestions
(or even if you just find typo errors
) you can contact me at siramy_paul@yahoo.com


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